Great Dane Breed Standard
The Great Dane combines, in its regal appearance, dignity, strength and elegance with great size and a powerful, well-formed,
smoothly muscled body. It is one of the giant working breeds, but is unique in that its general conformation must be so well
balanced that it never appears clumsy, and shall move with a long reach and powerful drive. It is always a unit-the Apollo
of dogs. A Great Dane must be spirited, courageous, never timid; always friendly and dependable. This physical and mental
combination is the characteristic which gives the Great Dane the majesty possessed by no other breed. It is particularly true
of this breed that there is an impression of great masculinity in dogs, as compared to an impression of femininity in bitches.
Lack of true Dane breed type, as defined in this standard, is a serious fault.
Size, Proportion, Substance
The male should appear more massive throughout than the bitch, with larger frame and heavier bone. In the
ratio between length and height, the Great Dane should be square. In bitches, a somewhat longer body is permissible, providing
she is well proportioned to her height. Coarseness or lack of substance are equally undesirable. The male shall not be less
than 30 inches at the shoulders, but it is preferable that he be 32 inches or more, providing he is well proportioned to his
height. The female shall not be less than 28 inches at the shoulders, but it is preferable that she be 30 inches or more,
providing she is well proportioned to her height. Danes under minimum height must be disqualified.
The head shall be rectangular, long, distinguished, expressive, finely chiseled, especially below the eyes. Seen from
the side, the Dane's forehead must be sharply set off from the bridge of the nose, (a strongly pronounced stop). The plane
of the skull and the plane of the muzzle must be straight and parallel to one another. The skull plane under and to the inner
point of the eye must slope without any bony protuberance in a smooth line to a full square jaw with a deep muzzle (fluttering
lips are undesirable). The masculinity of the male is very pronounced in structural appearance of the head. The bitch's
head is more delicately formed. Seen from the top, the skull should have parallel sides and the bridge of the nose should
be as broad as possible. The cheek muscles should not be prominent. The length from the tip of the nose to the center of the
stop should be equal to the length from the center of the stop to the rear of the slightly developed occiput. The head should
be angular from all sides and should have flat planes with dimensions in proportion to the size of the Dane. Whiskers may
be trimmed or left natural. Eyes shall be medium size, deep set, and dark, with a lively intelligent expression. The eyelids
are almond-shaped and relatively tight, with well developed brows. Haws and mongolian eyes are serious faults. In harlequins,
the eyes should be dark; light colored eyes, eyes of different colors and walleyes are permitted but not desirable. Ears shall
be high set, medium in size and of moderate thickness, folded forward close to the cheek. The top line of the folded ear should
be level with the skull. If cropped, the ear length is in proportion to the size of the head and the ears are carried uniformly
Nose shall be black, except in the blue Dane, where it is a dark blue-black. A black spotted nose is permitted
on the harlequin; a pink colored nose is not desirable. A split nose is a disqualification.
Teeth shall be strong,
well developed, clean and with full dentition. The incisors of the lower jaw touch very lightly the bottoms of the inner surface
of the upper incisors (scissors bite). An undershot jaw is a very serious fault. Overshot or wry bites are serious faults.
Even bites, misaligned or crowded incisors are minor faults.
Neck, Topline, Body
The neck shall
be firm, high set, well arched, long and muscular. From the nape, it should gradually broaden and flow smoothly into the withers.
The neck underline should be clean. Withers shall slope smoothly into a short level back with a broad loin. The chest shall
be broad, deep and well muscled. The forechest should be well developed without a pronounced sternum. The brisket extends
to the elbow, with well sprung ribs. The body underline should be tightly muscled with a well-defined tuck-up.
croup should be broad and very slightly sloping. The tail should be set high and smoothly into the croup, but not quite level
with the back, a continuation of the spine. The tail should be broad at the base, tapering uniformly down to the hock joint.
At rest, the tail should fall straight. When excited or running, it may curve slightly, but never above the level of the back.
A ring or hooked tail is a serious fault. A docked tail is a disqualification.
forequarters, viewed from the side, shall be strong and muscular. The shoulder blade must be strong and sloping, forming,
as near as possible, a right angle in its articulation with the upper arm. A line from the upper tip of the shoulder to the
back of the elbow joint should be perpendicular. The ligaments and muscles holding the shoulder blade to the rib cage must
be well developed, firm and securely attached to prevent loose shoulders. The shoulder blade and the upper arm should be the
same length. The elbow should be one-half the distance from the withers to the ground. The strong pasterns should slope slightly.
The feet should be round and compact with well-arched toes, neither toeing in, toeing out, nor rolling to the inside or outside.
The nails should be short, strong and as dark as possible, except that they may be lighter in harlequins. Dewclaws may or
may not be removed.
The hindquarters shall be strong, broad, muscular and well
angulated, with well let down hocks. Seen from the rear, the hock joints appear to be perfectly straight, turned neither toward
the inside nor toward the outside. The rear feet should be round and compact, with well-arched toes, neither toeing in nor
out. The nails should be short, strong and as dark as possible, except they may be lighter in harlequins. Wolf claws are a
The coat shall be short, thick and clean with a smooth glossy appearance.
Color, Markings and Patterns
Brindle--The base color shall be yellow gold
and always brindled with strong black cross stripes in a chevron pattern. A black mask is preferred. Black should appear on
the eye rims and eyebrows, and may appear on the ears and tail tip. The more intensive the base color and the more distinct
and even the brindling, the more preferred will be the color. Too much or too little brindling are equally undesirable. White
markings at the chest and toes, black-fronted, dirty colored brindles are not desirable.
color shall be yellow gold with a black mask. Black should appear on the eye rims and eyebrows, and may appear on the ears
and tail tip. The deep yellow gold must always be given the preference. White markings at the chest and toes, black-fronted
dirty colored fawns are not desirable.
Blue--The color shall be a pure steel blue. White markings
at the chest and toes are not desirable.
Black--The color shall be a glossy black. White markings
at the chest and toes are not desirable.
Harlequin--Base color shall be pure white with black torn
patches irregularly and well distributed over the entire body; a pure white neck is preferred. The black patches should never
be large enough to give the appearance of a blanket, nor so small as to give a stippled or dappled effect. Eligible, but less
desirable, are a few small gray patches, or a white base with single black hairs showing through, which tend to give a salt
and pepper or dirty effect.
Mantle--The color shall be black and white with a solid black blanket
extending over the body; black skull with white muzzle; white blaze is optional; whole white collar is preferred; a white
chest; white on part or whole of forelegs and hind legs; white tipped black tail. A small white marking in the blanket is
acceptable, as is a break in the white collar.
Any variance in color or markings as described above shall be faulted
to the extent of the deviation. Any Great Dane which does not fall within the above color classifications must be disqualified.
The gait denotes strength and power with long, easy strides resulting in no tossing, rolling
or bouncing of the topline or body. The backline shall appear level and parallel to the ground. The long reach should strike
the ground below the nose while the head is carried forward. The powerful rear drive should be balanced to the reach. As speed
increases, there is a natural tendency for the legs to converge toward the centerline of balance beneath the body. There should
be no twisting in or out at the elbow or hock joints.
The Great Dane must be spirited,
courageous, always friendly and dependable, and never timid or aggressive.
under minimum height.
Any color other than those described under "Color,
Markings and Patterns."
Approved March 8, 1999
Effective April 28, 1999
direct from AKC web-site